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The Nanotechnology

Introduction:       

           The word nano is derived from Latin word nanus means dwarf and Greek Nanos which is referred to as a very small or smallest. The term Nanotechnology is a combination of word nano and technology. Nano means the smallest and Technology means method, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes. Nanotechnology or nanoscience involves the ability to see and to control individual atoms and molecules something as small an atom is impossible to see with the naked eyes. The microscope for its study is invented about 30 years ago.
   
 One nanometer is one-billionth of a meter 
        1 nm = 10^-9 of a meter.

There are 25,400,000 in an inch
1 inch = 25 million and  400 thousand nm

 A sheet of newspaper is about 100,000 nanometer.

          On a comparative scale, if a marble were a nanometer, then one meter would be the size of the earth.
Nanotechnology is widely used in technical research and inventions. This field of science can be used in combination with various technical and non-technical disciplines.


Definition:

         Nanotechnology is the branch of science which deals with the study and application of various disciplines.
The design, characterization, production, and application of structures, devices, and systems by controlled manipulation of size and shape at the nanometer scale. (atomic, molecular and micro molecular scale) that produces structures, devices, and systems with at least one novel superior characteristics or property.

History:  

        In 1956, the physicist Richard Feynman first mentioned the concept behind nanoscience and nanotechnology in his speech at the American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology. In that meeting Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms of molecules.
  



The term nanotechnology was first introduced or coined by Norio Taniguchi in 1974 during a scientific conference but the idea and concept were first mentioned by Richard Feynman. 

  • Scanning Tunneling Microscope:

  
          Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The study of the nanoparticle is not possible with an ordinary microscope and nanoparticles can't be seen with naked eyes. In 1981 for the scientific study of nanoparticles a Scanning Tunneling Microscope is invented. Scanning Tunneling Microscope is prepared as a method to measure forces as small as 10^-18 N.

  • Atomic Force Microscope: 

Atomic Force Microscope

As one application for the concept of Scanning Tunneling Microscope, a new type of microscope is introduced in 1986 which is capable of investigating the surface of insulators on an atomic scale. The atomic force Microscope is a combination of the principle of the scanning tunneling microscope and stylus of a profilometer. It incorporates a probe that does not damage the surface.

  • Single  Electron Transistor:

              Single Electron Transistor

The single-electron transistor makes the use of the quantum effects which occur at nanometric scales to provide discretization of it's  I - V spectra. The transistor was first invented in 1986 by Solvent Scientists K.K. Likharev and D.V. Averin.

  • Carbon Nanotubes:

   
                       Carbon Nanotube

In 1991 Iijima discovered carbon nanotubes ( CNT). Since then a new branch of knowledge in material, science has emerged as nanoscience.

  • Graphene Nanosheet:

Graphene Nanosheet

A nanosheet is a two-dimensional nanostructure with a thickness on a scale ranging from 1 - 100 nm. Graphene nanosheet is thinnest two dimensional material on the earth . The graphene is material rediscovered, isolated, and characterized in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester.

Fields Related to Nanotechnology:

  • Green Nanotechnology.
  • Nanoengineering.
  • Nanobiotechnology.
  • Ceramic Engineering.
  • Material Science.
  • Molecular Engineering.
  • Nanoelectronics.
  • Nanomechanics.
  • Nanophotonics.
  • Quantum Mechanics.
  • Supramolecular Chemistry.
  • Tissue Engineering.
  • Protein Engineering.

Applications:

  • Nanomaterials.
  • Nanomedicines.
  • Molecular self-assembly, and many more.

             Nowadays Nanotechnology can be used in various fields of research and development. Nanotechnology covers a wide area of engineering applications. As a result of its compactness, it is much more useful in the electronic transistor and many other engineering applications,where compactness is the main criterion for product design and development.

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