The Nanotechnology

Introduction to word Nanotechnology

The word nano is derived from Latin word nanus means dwarf and Greek Nanos which is referred to as a very small or smallest. The term Nanotechnology is a combination of word nano and technology. Nano means the smallest and Technology means method, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes. Nanotechnology or nanoscience deals with the observation and control of the molecules and atmos at their individual level, which is not possible with human eyes for its study and applications in different areas. The microscope for its study is invented about 30 years ago.
   
One nanometer is one-billionth of a meter 
1 nm = 10^-9 of a meter.
There are 25,400,000 in an inch 
1 inch = 25 million and  400 thousand nm
A sheet of newspaper is about 100,000 nanometer.
If one Nanometer is as small as marble then one meter should be as big as the size of the earth.
Nanotechnology is widely used in technical research and inventions. This field of science can be used in combination with various technical and non-technical disciplines.

Definition to Nanotechnology
         Nanotechnology is the branch of science which deals with the study and application of various disciplines.
The field for Controlled manipulation of  molecules and individual atoms less than 100-nanometer scale is called Nanotechnology

History of Nanotechnology
        In 1956, the physicist Richard Feynman first mentioned the concept behind nanoscience and nanotechnology in his speech at the American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology. A process in which scientists can direct and restraint individual atoms of molecules was described by the Feynman in that meet.
The term nanotechnology was first introduced or coined by Norio Taniguchi in 1974 during a scientific conference but the idea and concept were first mentioned by Richard Feynman. 

Scanning Tunneling Microscope

Scanning Tunneling Microscope
 Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The study of the nanoparticle is not possible with an ordinary microscope and nanoparticles can't be seen with naked eyes. In 1981 for the scientific study of nanoparticles, a Scanning Tunneling Microscope is invented. For measuring the forces' small as 10^-18 N Scanning Tunneling Microscope is used.
 
Atomic Force Microscope
Atomic Force Microscope
Atomic Force Microscope
 
As one application for the concept of Scanning Tunneling Microscope, a new type of microscope is introduced in 1986 which is capable of investigating the surface of insulators on an atomic scale. The combined principle of scanning tunneling microscope and stylus of a profilometer forms the Atomic Force Microscope. It uses contacting probe for surface contact that prevents the surface from damage.

Single  Electron Transistor

Single Electron Transistor
Single Electron Transistor


Carbon Nanotubes

Carbon Nanotube
Carbon Nanotube


In 1991 Iijima discovered carbon nanotubes ( CNT). Since then a new branch of knowledge in material, science has emerged as nanoscience.

Graphene Nanosheet:

Nanosheet
Nanosheet
.
The thickness of the nanosheet is raging from 1 - 100 nm which is a two-dimensional sheet. Graphene nanosheet is thinnest two dimensional material on the earth.  In 2004, Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov rediscovered and designated the graphene material at the University of Manchester.

Fields Related to Nanotechnology:

  • Green Nanotechnology.
  • Nanoengineering.
  • Nanobiotechnology.
  • Ceramic Engineering.
  • Material Science.
  • Molecular Engineering.
  • Nanoelectronics.
  • Nanomechanics.
  • Nanophotonics.
  • Quantum Mechanics.
  • Supramolecular Chemistry.
  • Tissue Engineering.
  • Protein Engineering.

Applications

  • Nanomaterials.
  • Nanomedicines.
  • Molecular self-assembly, and many more.
Nowadays Nanotechnology can be used in various fields of research and development. Nanotechnology covers a wide area of engineering applications. As a result of its compactness, it is much more useful in the electronic transistor and many other engineering applications, where compactness is the main criterion for product design and development.

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